In 1955, two American psychologists Joseph Luft (1916–2014) and Harrington Ingham (1916–1995) developed the Johari Window. Their goal was to model the relationship between self and others to improve self-awareness and personal development among individuals in a group.
This idea of distinguishing between what is known and unknown between self and others has been built on over the years, away from the original use in psychology and towards a more general view based on awareness and knowledge. You may have heard of expressions such as “known knowns” (aware knowledge) and “unknown unknowns” (unaware lack of knowledge) that are sometimes represented as in the matrix below.
What this awareness vs knowledge matrix fails to represent is the unavoidable relationship between self and others, as in the Johari Window. In this article, I present my own view that combines the concepts of awareness, knowledge, self, and others.
To begin with, I consider the “self vs others” concept more generally as “local vs global”, as illustrated in the table below:
|Examples of local vs global perspectives|
Then, I aim to distinguish between awareness and knowledge. Awareness comes first since the question must be asked before you are locally aware of your knowledge of the answer. If something is unknown, it has not been identified; the question has not been asked. Awareness of the question must arise before knowledge of the relevant solution can arise. At the same time, solutions may exist to unanswered questions, but we cannot assign solutions to questions without the questions too.
From “unaware” to “aware” is a process of realization or discovery of a problem or question.
From “unknown” to “known” is a process of finding a solution to a problem that you are aware of.
Bringing this all together results in the following diagram (note that the horizontal axis has been swapped compared to the other two diagrams, so that top right is the “positive” direction rather than top left):
Ways to aware knowledge given awareness:
- Reinvent the wheel
- Use existing knowledge
- Discover new knowledge
Ways to aware knowledge given knowledge:
- Have existing insight
- Use existing insight
- Have new insight
Ways to awareness without knowledge:
- Ask existing questions
- Use existing questions
- Ask new questions
By looking at things from this angle, we can see that:
- Using only local awareness and local knowledge is a poor use of resources
- Efficient use of existing resources comes from “standing on the shoulders of giants” and looking to expand local awareness and knowledge by leaning on the success of those that have come before us
- The other edge of the sword is exploring new frontiers by means of discovering new questions and new solutions or new ways of applying existing solutions to existing questions. In this way, the global set of awareness and knowledge increases, for future generations to continue to find new ways to iterate in this great game we call life.
Closing thoughts on the terminology used and how it might fit together:
- Awareness is the fundamental mechanism a conscious agent has for acquiring data
- Knowledge is awareness of information by a conscious agent
- Information is data that has been interpreted by a conscious agent for their own purpose e.g. prediction or pattern recognition
- Data is the smallest unit of uninterpreted information in the context in use by a conscious agent e.g. when reading a book the smallest unit might be the words, but for someone analyzing words the smallest unit might be the letters; data has subjective units
- Information can be encoded back as data e.g. text, speech, images
- Information is self-referential; data leads to information which can act as the data for further information.
- A conscious agent is something like me or (possibly) you that appears to “think therefore I am”
A common inter-subjective data basis is the binary system; encoding information using bits 0s and 1s to represent discriminatory power. This is by no means a universal basis since it only carries the meaning we associate to the discriminatory ability of the bits. It may be possible to have a universal data basis defined in terms of the Planck units (which appear to be the smallest discrete units the universe has on offer).
What are your thoughts? I found this topic especially useful as a reminder that we do not typically operate in closed bounded systems. More often, we are part of something larger than our immediate surroundings and it is important to remember that feedback loops exist between self and others.